Gründel J., Nützel A., Schulbert C. (2009) Toarctocera (Gastropoda, Aporrhaidae): a new genus from the Jurassic (Toarcian/Aalenian) of South Germany and the early evolutionary history of the family Aporrhaidae // Paläontol Z., in press, DOI 10.1007/s12542-009-0037-1
Pdf still in the free access, see http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12542-009-0037-1
Toarctocera, a new gastropod genus of the family Aporrhaidae (Stromboidea) is described for Rostellaria subpunctata. It occurs in Central Europe (S Germany, N Switzerland, and France) and is commonly one of the most abundant gastropods in Late Toarcian/Early Aalenian soft bottom faunas. Toarctocera subpunctata has extremely elongated apertural spines; this has been interpreted as an adaptation to extremely soft-bottom conditions (snowshoe strategy). The new genus represents one of the earliest certain aporrhaids (Stromboidea). Aporrhaids are probably as old as Late Triassic, and possible Triassic and Early Jurassic species are discussed. Spiniloma is proposed as a nomen novum in order to replace the homonym Spinigera and consequently the family Spinilomatinae replaces the Spinigeridae. The sister group of Stromboidea still needs to be identified. A previously suggested sister group relationship with the Heteropoda is seen as unlikely.