|mhorn||Дата: Monday, 26.10.2009, 18:48 | Сообщение # 1|
|Klompmaker A.A., Waljaard N.A., Fraaije R.H.B. (2009) Ventral bite marks in Mesozoic ammonoids // Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. V.280. P.245–257 |
Reports on the predators of ammonoids are rare, although ammonoids were abundant and diverse
invertebrates in many Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine ecosystems. Most previous work on lethal ammonoid predation has focused on (sub)circular tooth marks which resulted from fish and mosasaur attacks. In the present study we discuss a relatively common type of bite mark in ammonoid shells, the ‘ventral bite mark’. This typically occurs in a restricted position on the ventral side of the outer body chamber whorl and does not affect either the aperture or the phragmocone. Ammonoid specimens revealing ventral bite marks used in this study were collected from a wide range of strata which range in age from the Lower Jurassic to the uppermost Cretaceous (close to the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary). These ventral bite marks are absent in the Paleozoic collections studied. The vast majority of ventral bite marks are situated at the end of the body chamber, close to the phragmocone. This is interpreted as the result of predatory attacks on the back or blind side of ammonoids in their living position. The predators aimed for the vital parts and muscle attachments to obtain the edible soft tissues. The agents for most of the ventral bite marks to ammonoids are probably coleoid cephalopods (especially teuthoids) and predatory fishes to a lesser extent.
Middle Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous ammonites & aptychi